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Poult Sci. 2014 Jan;93(1):208-15. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03536.

The evaluation of combined chemical and physical treatments on the reduction of resident microorganisms and Salmonella Typhimurium attached to chicken skin.

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  • 1School of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, 72-1 Nae-Ri, Daeduck-Myun, Ansung, Kyungggido 456-756, Republic of Korea.


This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 0-200 mg/kg), thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS, 1,000 mg/kg), and ultrasound (37 kHz, 380 W) on reducing Salmonella Typhimurim, mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and coliforms on chicken skin. Chemical and physical treatments were applied for 5 min either singly or jointly, and Salmonella previously inoculated on chicken skin were quantitatively assessed using brilliant green agar, and the populations of MAB and coliforms in the native flora were enumerated using plate count agar and violet red bile agar, respectively. In the evaluation of bacterial attachment/detachment, chicken skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely, intermediately, and tightly attached bacteria. The treatment effects on bacteria detachment were also visualized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. In addition, color and textural properties of the skin after treatments were evaluated using a color difference meter and texture analyzer. Antimicrobial activity of NaOCl increased as the NaOCl concentration was increased, especially for loosely attached cells. The combination of 200 mg/kg NaOCl and ultrasound (NaOCl/ultrasound) significant reduced loosely, intermediately, and tightly attached bacteria populations by 0.75 to 0.47, 0.43 to 0.41, and 0.83 to 0.54 log cfu/g for MAB, coliforms, and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. However, the combination of NaOCl and TDS (NaOCl/TDS) did not sufficiently reduce those cells on chicken skins, except for loosely attached MAB and coliforms. The NaOCl/ultrasound combination produced a higher reduction in numbers of inoculated and native bacteria flora than any single application, with no negative effect on skin color or texture. Generally, the loosely attached bacteria were less resistant to the chemical and physical treatments than the intermediately and tightly attached bacteria in chicken skin, presumably due to their location in deeper skin layer and crevices. Further research is needed to investigate how the intermediately and tightly attached microorganisms can be effectively eliminated from chicken skin.


Salmonella; chicken skin; sodium hypochlorite; thiamine dilauryl sulfate; ultrasound

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