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Cephalalgia. 2014 Oct;34(11):914-9. doi: 10.1177/0333102414523843. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Ophthalmoplegic migraine: from questions to answers.

Author information

1
Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Villalba Hospital, GVM, Care and Research, Italy.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy francescanicolini@hotmail.it.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy.
4
Department of Neuroradiology, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Speciality Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
5
Department of Radiology, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento, Italy.
6
Department of Neuroradiology, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The International Classification of Headache Disorders classifies ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) under "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain." OM is diagnosed when all the following criteria are satisfied: A. At least two attacks fulfilling criterion B. B. Migraine-like headache accompanied or followed within four days of its onset by paresis of one or more of the III, IV and/or VI cranial nerves. C. Parasellar orbital fissure and posterior fossa lesions ruled out by appropriate investigations. In children the syndrome is rare and magnetic resonance (MR) shows strongly enhancing thickened nerve at the root entry zone (REZ).

METHOD:

The authors review the literature focusing on pathogenesis theories.

RESULTS:

The authors suggest that ischemic reversible breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier is the most probable cause of OM and to include MR findings in the hallmarks of the disease.

CONCLUSION:

OM is the same disease in adulthood and childhood, even if in adults the MR imaging findings are negative. In the authors' opinion, OM should be classified as migraine.

KEYWORDS:

Ophthalmoplegic migraine; cranial nerve palsy; headache; neuroradiology; pediatric

PMID:
24567117
DOI:
10.1177/0333102414523843
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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