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J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Apr;25(4):404-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.001. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Berry anthocyanins suppress the expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB independent of NRF2-mediated mechanism.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
3
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address: ji-young.lee@uconn.edu.

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins from blueberry (BBA), blackberry (BKA), and blackcurrant (BCA) and to determine the relationship between their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages. Major anthocyanins in BBA, BKA and BCA were malvidin-3-glucoside (16%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (98%) and delphinidin-3-rutinoside (44%), respectively. BKA showed higher total antioxidant capacity than BBA and BCA. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with 0-20 μg/ml of BBA, BKA and BCA, and subsequently activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure proinflammatory cytokine production. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly decreased by all berry anthocyanins at 10 μg/ml or higher. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA levels and secretion were also significantly decreased in LPS-treated macrophages. The levels of the repression were comparable for all berry anthocyanins. LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation to the nucleus was markedly attenuated by all of the berry anthocyanins. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) mice, BBA, BKA and BCA significantly decreased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels with a concomitant decrease in IL-1β mRNA levels upon LPS stimulation. However, in the BMM from Nrf2(-/-) mice, the anthocyanin fractions were able to significantly decrease IL-1β mRNA despite the fact that ROS levels were not significantly affected. In conclusion, BBA, BKA and BCA exert their anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, at least in part, by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB independent of the NRF2-mediated pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Anthocyanins; Antioxidant capacity; Berries; Inflammation; NF-κB; NRF2

PMID:
24565673
DOI:
10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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