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Ecotoxicology. 2014 Jul;23(5):757-66. doi: 10.1007/s10646-014-1212-z. Epub 2014 Feb 22.

Response of Tribolium castaneum to elevated copper concentrations is influenced by history of metal exposure, sex-specific defences, and infection by the parasite Steinernema feltiae.

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Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland,


We studied how copper toxicity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum changed as a result of infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Measured traits were: respiration, growth and survival, as well as the concentrations of copper within beetle tissues and in its diet. By comparing F1 and F5 generation we were able to answer how long-term metal exposure changed the responses to both copper and the parasite. The beetles did accumulate copper; however, the results indicated that copper concentrations in beetle tissues were affected by nematode infection, the sex of the experimental animals, and the number of generations of exposure. Five generations of exposure to copper resulted in the highest dry body mass of infected beetles of both sexes; additionally, this group also had the lowest copper concentrations in their tissues. The only factor that had a significant effect on respiration was infection by nematodes: infected beetles of both sexes in both generational groups had significantly decreased respiration rates. Survival was lowest in nematode-infected animals of both sexes from both generations, regardless of exposure to copper. Our results confirm that an organism's response to metal pollution is dependent on its health status and sex. We also found that the history of exposure to metal was equally important-we found enhanced resistance to copper intoxication after only five generations of exposure.

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