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Environ Int. 2014 May;66:97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.026. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.

Author information

1
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: M.Wang@uu.nl.
2
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.
4
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Epidemiology and Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
IUF, Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany; University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
7
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
8
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública - CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
9
University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
10
MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
11
MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; University College London, London, United Kingdom.
12
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
13
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
14
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
15
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
16
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
17
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
18
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
19
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
20
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
21
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
22
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
23
IUF, Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany.
24
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center of Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
25
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
26
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
27
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
28
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; University of Augsburg, Environmental Science Center, Augsburg, Germany.
29
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
30
Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria.
31
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria.
32
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
33
Inserm, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women's Health Team, Villejuif, France; University Paris Sud, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France; IGR, Villejuif, France.
34
French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) 12, Saint-Maurice, France.
35
Human Genetics Foundation - HuGeF, Turin, Italy.
36
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, AO Citta' della Salute e della Scienza, University of Turin and Center for Cancer Prevention, Turin, Italy.
37
Unit of Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Verona, Italy.
38
Environmental Health Reference Centre, Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention of Emilia-Romagna, Modena, Italy.
39
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
40
TNO, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
41
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
42
University of Hertfordshire College Lane, Hatfield, United Kingdom.
43
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only.

AIMS:

The aim of this study was to examine the association of PM composition with cardiovascular mortality.

METHODS:

We used data from 19 European ongoing cohorts within the framework of the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts--Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects. Residential annual average exposure to elemental constituents within particle matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10) was estimated using Land Use Regression models. Eight elements representing major sources were selected a priori (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc). Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models with a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate combined effect estimates.

RESULTS:

The total population consisted of 322,291 participants, with 9545 CVD deaths. We found no statistically significant associations between any of the elemental constituents in PM2.5 or PM10 and CVD mortality in the pooled analysis. Most of the hazard ratios (HRs) were close to unity, e.g. for PM10 Fe the combined HR was 0.96 (0.84-1.09). Elevated combined HRs were found for PM2.5 Si (1.17, 95% CI: 0.93-1.47), and S in PM2.5 (1.08, 95% CI: 0.95-1.22) and PM10 (1.09, 95% CI: 0.90-1.32).

CONCLUSION:

In a joint analysis of 19 European cohorts, we found no statistically significant association between long-term exposure to 8 elemental constituents of particles and total cardiovascular mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular mortality; Constituents; ESCAPE; Long-term exposure; Particulate matter; TRANSPHORM

PMID:
24561271
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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