Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Apr;25(4):439-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
2
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
3
Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
4
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Electronic address: jdl134@psu.edu.

Abstract

In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose tissue; Cocoa; Inflammation; Obesity; Polyphenol; Theobroma cacao

PMID:
24561154
PMCID:
PMC4034375
DOI:
10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center