Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 3;52:70-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: implications for smoking and nicotine dependence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address: scott.kollins@duke.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; Duke Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing disorder affecting millions of children, adolescents, and adults. Individuals with ADHD smoke cigarettes at rates significantly higher than their non-diagnosed peers and the disorder also confers risk for a number of related adverse smoking outcomes including earlier age of initiation, faster progression to regular use, heavier smoking/greater dependence, and more difficulty quitting. Progress in our understanding of dopamine neurotransmission and basic behavioral reinforcement processes in ADHD may help increase our understanding of the ADHD-smoking comorbidity. This review will examine how these areas have been studied and how further work may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment for smoking in those with ADHD.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Dopamine; Reinforcement; Smoking

PMID:
24560930
PMCID:
PMC4004668
DOI:
10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.02.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center