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Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Jun;121:62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.02.010. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

The pharmacology of the human female orgasm - its biological and physiological backgrounds.

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Honorary Research Associate, Sexual Physiology Laboratory, Porterbrook Clinic, 75 Osborne Road, Sheffield S11 9BF, Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:


The female orgasm has been examined over the years by numerous scientific disciplines yet it still has many secrets to be disclosed. Because its physiology, especially its neurophysiology, is sparingly understood its pharmacology is necessarily limited based mainly on the side effects of drugs. Few published studies have used a placebo group as controls. The paucity of focussed studies is well illustrated by the fact that there still is no approved medication to treat female orgasmic dysfunction. The present brief overview examines the most important aspects of its biology and especially its physiology highlighting the many questions that need answering if we are to have a comprehensive pharmacology of the female orgasm.


Brain imaging; Drugs; Female orgasm; Hormones; Muscular contractions; Orgasm typology

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