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Psychiatry Res. 2014 May 15;216(2):255-62. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.024. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Text messaging: are dependency and Excessive Use discretely different for Japanese university students?

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
2
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
3
Research Center of Applied Psychology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.
4
Kyushu University of Nursing and Social Welfare, Tamana, Japan.
5
Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo, 101 Akasaka 8-13-5, Minato, Tokyo 107-0057, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address: kitamura@institute-of-mental-health.jp.

Abstract

Text messaging may be excessive and young people may be dependent on it. We distributed the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) to 223 Japanese university students in a two-wave study, separated by a 5-month interval. The STDS yielded a three-factor structure. The STDS scores across the two measurement occasions were stable across time (except for the Relationship Maintenance subscale). A hierarchical cluster analysis suggested a three-class structure interpreted as Normal Users, Excessive Users, and Dependent Users. Excessive Users and Dependent Users were characterized by a young age at initial mobile phone use, more frequent use of text messaging, higher Novelty Seeking, and better Other-Model patterns of adult attachment. Unlike Excessive Users, Dependent Users were characterized by lower Self-directedness, poorer Self-Model of adult attachment, and higher anxiety and depression. The Excessive Users, but not the Dependent Users, were characterized by high Reward Dependence and Co-operativeness. The present study demonstrated that the STDS has a robust factor structure, good construct validity, and temporal stability (except for Relationship Maintenance subscale); students could be classified into normal, excessive, and Dependent Users of the text messaging; and Dependent Users were characterized by Excessive Use and personality immaturity.

KEYWORDS:

Cluster analysis; Mobile phone; Rating scale; Reliability; Text message dependency; Validity

PMID:
24560613
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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