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Ophthalmology. 2014 Jul;121(7):1428-1434.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.01.002. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Dietary patterns and their associations with age-related macular degeneration: the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

Author information

1
Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
2
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
3
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.
4
Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: lrobman@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

DESIGN:

Food frequency data were collected from Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) participants at the baseline study in 1990-1994. During follow-up in 2003-2007, retinal photographs were taken and evaluated for AMD.

PARTICIPANTS:

At baseline, 41514 participants aged 40 to 70 years and born in Australia or New Zealand (69%), or who had migrated from the United Kingdom, Italy, Greece, or Malta (31%) were recruited. Of these, 21132 were assessed for AMD prevalence at follow-up.

METHODS:

Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns (Factors F1-6) among the food items. Logistic regression was used to assess associations of dietary patterns with AMD.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Odds ratios (ORs) for early stages and advanced AMD in association with dietary patterns.

RESULTS:

A total of 2508 participants (12.8%) had early stages of AMD, and 108 participants (0.6%) had advanced AMD. Six factors characterized by predominant intakes of fruits (F1); vegetables (F2); grains, fish, steamed or boiled chicken, vegetables, and nuts (F3); red meat (F4); processed foods comprising cakes, sweet biscuits, and desserts (F5); and salad (F6) were identified. Higher F3 scores were associated with a lower prevalence of advanced AMD (fourth vs. first quartile) (OR, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.87), whereas F4 scores greater than the median were associated with a higher prevalence of advanced AMD (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.0-2.17).

CONCLUSIONS:

Rather than specific individual food items, these factors represent a broader picture of food consumption. A dietary pattern high in fruits, vegetables, chicken, and nuts and a pattern low in red meat seems to be associated with a lower prevalence of advanced AMD. No particular food pattern seemed to be associated with the prevalence of the earliest stages of AMD.

PMID:
24560564
DOI:
10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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