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Metabolism. 2014 Apr;63(4):562-73. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.01.004. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women.

Author information

1
Vanderbilt University, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address: Heidi.j.silver@vanderbilt.edu.
2
Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN, USA.
3
Vanderbilt University, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.
4
Vanderbilt University, Department of Cardiology, Nashville, TN, USA.
5
Northwestern University, Department of Cardiology, Chicago, IL, USA.
6
Vanderbilt University, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation.

METHODS:

Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo.

RESULTS:

Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5±2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5±2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00696228.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular; Endothelial; Fatty acid; Inflammation; Obesity

PMID:
24559846
PMCID:
PMC4306330
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2014.01.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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