Send to

Choose Destination
Angle Orthod. 2014 Sep;84(5):788-94. doi: 10.2319/092313-699.1. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Three-dimensional evaluation of the relationship between jaw divergence and facial soft tissue dimensions.

Author information

a  PhD Student, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Oral Science, University of Naples "Federico II,", Naples, Italy.



To evaluate the relationship between mandibular divergence and vertical and transverse dimensions of the face.


A sample was recruited from the orthodontic clinic of the University of Otago, New Zealand. The recruited participants (N  =  60) were assigned to three different groups based on the mandibular plane angle (hyperdivergent, n  =  20; normodivergent, n  =  20; and hypodivergent, n  =  20). The sample consisted of 31 females and 29 males, with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD ± 5.0). Facial scans were recorded for each participant using a three-dimensional (3D) white-light scanner and then merged to form a single 3D image of the face. Vertical and transverse measurements of the face were assessed from the 3D facial image.


The hyperdivergent sample had a significantly larger total and lower anterior facial height than the other two groups (P < .05), although no difference was found for the middle facial height (P > .05). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the transverse measurements of the three study groups (P > .05). Both gender and body mass index (BMI) had a greater influence on the transverse dimension.


Hyperdivergent facial types are associated with a long face but not necessarily a narrow face. Variations in facial soft tissue vertical and transversal dimensions are more likely to be due to gender. Body mass index has a role in mandibular width (GoGo) assessment.


Craniofacial morphology; Jaw divergence; Soft tissue analysis; White-light scanner

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Allen Press, Inc.
Loading ...
Support Center