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Anesth Analg. 2014 Mar;118(3):644-50. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000055.

Technology diffusion of anesthesia information management systems into academic anesthesia departments in the United States.

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From the *Departments of Anesthesiology, Bioinformatics, and Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee; †Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee; and ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.



Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are electronic health records that automatically import vital signs from patient monitors and allow for computer-assisted creation of the anesthesia record. When most recently surveyed in 2007, it was estimated that at least 16% of U.S. academic hospitals (i.e., with an anesthesia residency program) had installed an AIMS. At least an additional 28% reported that they were in the process of implementing, or searching for an AIMS. In this study, we updated the adoption figures as of May 2013 and examined the historical trend of AIMS deployment in U.S. anesthesia residency programs from the perspective of the theory of diffusion of technologic innovations.


Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to program directors or their identified contact individuals at the 130 U.S. anesthesiology residency programs accredited as of June 30, 2012 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. The questionnaires asked whether the department had an AIMS, the year of installation, and, if not present, whether there were plans to install an AIMS within the next 12 months. Follow-up e-mails and phone calls were made until responses were obtained from all programs. Results were collected between February and May 2013. Implementation percentages were determined using the number of accredited anesthesia residency programs at the start of each academic year between 1987 and 2013 and were fit to a logistic regression curve using data through 2012.


Responses were received from all 130 programs. Eighty-seven (67%) reported that they currently are using an AIMS. Ten programs without a current AIMS responded that they would be installing an AIMS within 12 months of the survey. The rate of AIMS adoption by year was well fit by a logistic regression curve (P = 0.90).


By the end of 2014, approximately 75% of U.S. academic anesthesiology departments will be using an AIMS, with 84% adoption expected between 2018 and 2020. Historical adoption of AIMS has followed Roger's 1962 formulation of the theory of diffusion of innovation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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