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Phys Med Biol. 2014 Mar 7;59(5):1327-38. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/59/5/1327. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Real-time proton beam range monitoring by means of prompt-gamma detection with a collimated camera.

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IPNL, Université de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, France. Université Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822 F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. CREATIS, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon, France. Université Lyon 1 and CNRS UMR 5220, INSERMU1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, France. Ion Beam Applications SA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.


Prompt-gamma profile was measured at WPE-Essen using 160 MeV protons impinging a movable PMMA target. A single collimated detector was used with time-of-flight (TOF) to reduce the background due to neutrons. The target entrance rise and the Bragg peak falloff retrieval precision was determined as a function of incident proton number by a fitting procedure using independent data sets. Assuming improved sensitivity of this camera design by using a greater number of detectors, retrieval precisions of 1 to 2 mm (rms) are expected for a clinical pencil beam. TOF improves the contrast-to-noise ratio and the performance of the method significantly.

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