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Version 2. F1000Res. 2013 Jul 4 [revised 2013 Aug 20];2:147. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.2-147.v2. eCollection 2013.

Curcumin reduces prostaglandin E2, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and proteoglycan release in the secretome of interleukin 1β-treated articular cartilage.

Author information

1
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK.
2
WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, LE14 4RT, UK.
3
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK ; Medical Research Council-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK ; Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK ; Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise, and Osteoarthritis, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK ; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK ; School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK ; Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia ; The D-BOARD European Consortium for Biomarker Discovery, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phytochemical with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to determine whether non-toxic concentrations of curcumin can reduce interleukin-1beta (IL-1β)-stimulated inflammation and catabolism in an explant model of cartilage inflammation.

METHODS:

Articular cartilage explants and primary chondrocytes were obtained from equine metacarpophalangeal joints. Curcumin was added to monolayer cultured primary chondrocytes and cartilage explants in concentrations ranging from 3μM-100μM. Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 release into the secretome of IL-1β-stimulated explants was measured using a competitive ELISA and western blotting respectively. Proteoglycan (PG) release in the secretome was measured using the 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. Cytotoxicity was assessed with a live/dead assay in monolayer cultures after 24 hours, 48 hours and five days, and in explants after five days.

RESULTS:

Curcumin induced chondrocyte death in primary cultures (50μM p<0.001 and 100μM p<0.001) after 24 hours. After 48 hours and five days, curcumin (≥25μM) significantly increased cell death ( p<0.001 both time points). In explants, curcumin toxicity was not observed at concentrations up to and including 25μM after five days. Curcumin (≥3μM) significantly reduced IL-1β-stimulated PG ( p<0.05) and PGE 2 release ( p<0.001) from explants, whilst curcumin (≥12μM) significantly reduced MMP-3 release ( p<0.01).

CONCLUSION:

Non-cytotoxic concentrations of curcumin exert anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory effects in cartilage explants.

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