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Cell Cycle. 2014;13(7):1180-6. doi: 10.4161/cc.28111. Epub 2014 Feb 11.

ZIP4 confers resistance to zinc deficiency-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.

Author information

1
The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery; University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Houston, TX USA.
2
Department of Cancer Biology; University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center; Houston, TX USA.
3
The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery; University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Houston, TX USA; Department of Gastroenterology; Changhai Hospital; Second Military Medical University; Shanghai, China.
4
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Houston, TX USA.

Abstract

Emerging evidence implicates the zinc importer ZIP4 as a critical factor that enhances pancreatic cancer proliferation; however, the role of ZIP4 in promoting pancreatic cancer progression by regulating apoptosis requires elucidation. To determine the effect of ZIP4 on apoptosis, we used cell lines where ZIP4 levels were upregulated or silenced in combination with Chelex 100 treatment to deplete intracellular zinc. Pancreatic cancer xenografts derived from those cells were also included. TUNEL and flow cytometry analysis were used to measure apoptosis and western blotting was used to analyze protein expression for PARP and multiple caspases. Cell cycle profiles were examined by flow cytometry. Zinc depletion by Chelex induced more apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in comparison to normal medium, where almost no apoptosis was observed. ZIP4 stably overexpressed MIA PaCa-2 (MIA-ZIP4) cells were more resistant to zinc depletion-induced apoptosis compared with vector control. Conversely, AsPC-1 (AsPC-shZIP4) cells with stable knockdown of ZIP4 were more sensitive to zinc deficiency than control. Resistance to apoptosis mediated by ZIP4 was accomplished by the caspase pathway. In vivo data also confirmed that ZIP4 overexpressed xenografts showed less apoptosis than controls. Cell cycle profiles indicate that silencing of ZIP4 leads to decreased cell population in S phase and G 0/G 1 arrest. These results described a previously uncharacterized role of ZIP4 in apoptosis resistance and elucidated a novel pathway through which ZIP4 regulates pancreatic cancer growth. This research provides additional evidence for ZIP4 and related signaling cascade as a molecular target for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer.

KEYWORDS:

ZIP4; apoptosis; caspase; cell cycle; pancreatic cancer

PMID:
24553114
PMCID:
PMC4013168
DOI:
10.4161/cc.28111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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