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Ann Hepatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;13(2):265-72.

Tyrosinemia type I: clinical and biochemical analysis of patients in Mexico.

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Laboratorio de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo y Tamiz del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Secretaría de Salud. México.
Unidad de Genética de la Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UNAM-Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. México.



Hepatorenal tyrosinemia (HT1) is a treatable, inherited, metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver failure with pronounced coagulopathy. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, and histopathological findings in a group of Mexican HT1 patients and their outcome.


Medical records of HT1 patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 were analyzed. The diagnosis of HT1 was confirmed by detection of succinylacetone in urine or blood.


Sixteen nonrelated HT1 cases were analyzed. Mean age at clinical onset was 9 months, and the mean age at diagnosis was 16.3 months. Main clinical findings were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, cirrhosis, liver failure, tubulopathy, nephromegaly, Fanconi syndrome, seizures and failure to thrive. Histopathological findings were cirrhosis, fibrosis and steatosis. The HT1 group had a mortality rate of 78%. Patients who received supportive care or nutritional treatment had a 3-year survival rate of 10%. For those who underwent liver transplantation, the 6-year survival rate was 60%. In most cases pharmacological treatment with nitisinone and special dietary products were not available. The leading causes of death were fulminant liver failure, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and porphyria-like neurologic crisis. Newborn screening programs in combination with the availability of orphan drugs, proper monitoring, genetic counseling, and clinical practice guidelines are needed to enable physicians to identify the disease, delay its progression, and improve patients' quality of life.


The devastating natural history of HT1 is still observed in Mexican patients because they are not diagnosed and treated during the early stages of the disease.

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