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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 May-Jun;23(5):e313-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.12.012. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

A matched comparison of eptifibatide plus rt-PA versus rt-PA alone in acute ischemic stroke.

Author information

1
University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Electronic address: opeolu.adeoye@uc.edu.
2
University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
3
Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
4
University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
5
University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Combined Approach to Lysis Utilizing Eptifibatide and Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Acute Ischemic Stroke-Enhanced Regimen (CLEAR-ER) trial found that intravenous rt-PA plus eptifibatide (combination arm) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was safe and had a direction of effect that would justify a phase III trial. CLEAR-ER had unanticipated imbalances between treatment groups. We compared the rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and good outcomes for combination therapy patients in the CLEAR-ER trial to a matched cohort of rt-PA patients from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial.

METHODS:

CLEAR-ER was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study; rt-PA-eligible AIS patients were randomized to .6 mg/kg rt-PA plus eptifibatide (135 mcg/kg bolus and .75mcg/kg/min two-hour infusion) versus standard rt-PA (.9 mg/kg). For this analysis, we matched 1:1 CLEAR-ER combination therapy patients with rt-PA arm NINDS trial patients. Patients were matched by age, gender, race, baseline modified Rankin Scale score, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and stroke onset to rt-PA time.

RESULTS:

Fifty-four matches were made. One (1.8%) sICH occurred in each group (odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] .01-78.50). At 90 days, 51.8% of the CLEAR-ER group had good outcomes versus 46.3% in the NINDS rt-PA group (OR 1.30, 95% CI .57-2.96). For subjects with baseline NIHSS score > 12 (CLEAR-ER median NIHSS score), 38.5% of the CLEAR-ER group had good outcomes versus 23.1% in the NINDS group (OR 2.33, 95% CI .60-9.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

The safety and direction of effect of eptifibatide plus rt-PA were confirmed. A phase III trial is needed to determine the efficacy of eptifibatide plus rt-PA for improving long-term outcomes after AIS.

KEYWORDS:

Ischemic stroke; clinical trial; eptifibatide; tissue plasminogen activator

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