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Cereb Cortex. 2015 Jul;25(7):1981-6. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu015. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Disruption of Locomotor Adaptation with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Motor Cortex.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport Science Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Current address: Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
2
Department of Rehabilitation, Université Laval and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration, Québec City, Canada.
3
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport Science Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent on corticospinal mechanisms. Subjects were exposed to an elastic force that resisted ankle dorsiflexion during treadmill walking. Ankle movement was adapted in <30 strides, leading to after-effects on removal of the force. We used a crossover design to study the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1), compared with normal adaptation without TMS. In addition, we tested the effects of TMS over the primary sensory cortex (S1) and premotor cortex (PMC) during adaptation. We found that M1 TMS, but not S1 TMS and PMC TMS, reduced the size of ankle dorsiflexion after-effects. The results suggest that suprathreshold M1 TMS disrupted the initial processes underlying locomotor adaptation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that corticospinal mechanisms underlie storage of ankle adaptation in walking.

KEYWORDS:

corticospinal; human locomotion; motor adaptation

PMID:
24532321
DOI:
10.1093/cercor/bhu015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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