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Pharmacol Res. 2014 May;83:10-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.01.005. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

Pharmacological chaperoning: a primer on mechanism and pharmacology.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 33932, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, United States. Electronic address: nleide@lsuhsc.edu.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 33932, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, United States. Electronic address: kgalli@lsuhsc.edu.

Abstract

Approximately forty percent of diseases are attributable to protein misfolding, including those for which genetic mutation produces misfolding mutants. Intriguingly, many of these mutants are not terminally misfolded since native-like folding, and subsequent trafficking to functional locations, can be induced by target-specific, small molecules variably termed pharmacological chaperones, pharmacoperones, or pharmacochaperones (PCs). PC targets include enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, revealing the breadth of proteins that can be engaged by ligand-assisted folding. The purpose of this review is to provide an integrated primer of the diverse mechanisms and pharmacology of PCs. In this regard, we examine the structural mechanisms that underlie PC rescue of misfolding mutants, including the ability of PCs to act as surrogates for defective intramolecular interactions and, at the intermolecular level, overcome oligomerization deficiencies and dominant negative effects, as well as influence the subunit stoichiometry of heteropentameric receptors. Not surprisingly, PC-mediated structural correction of misfolding mutants normalizes interactions with molecular chaperones that participate in protein quality control and forward-trafficking. A variety of small molecules have proven to be efficacious PCs and the advantages and disadvantages of employing orthostatic antagonists, active-site inhibitors, orthostatic agonists, and allosteric modulator PCs are considered. Also examined is the possibility that several therapeutic agents may have unrecognized activity as PCs, and this chaperoning activity may mediate/contribute to therapeutic action and/or account for adverse effects. Lastly, we explore evidence that pharmacological chaperoning exploits intrinsic ligand-assisted folding mechanisms. Given the widespread applicability of PC rescue of mutants associated with protein folding disorders, both in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic potential of PCs is vast. This is most evident in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders, cystic fibrosis, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, for which proof of principle in humans has been demonstrated.

KEYWORDS:

Calnexin; Chaperoning; Endoplasmic reticulum; GPCR; Misfolding mutant; Pharmacological chaperone; Pharmacoperone; Protein folding disorders; Rescue

PMID:
24530489
PMCID:
PMC4521617
DOI:
10.1016/j.phrs.2014.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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