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Conserv Biol. 2014 Jun;28(3):851-60. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12244. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.

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Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 550 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706-1404, U.S.A., Living with Lions, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki 10400, Kenya.

Erratum in

  • Conserv Biol. 2014 Oct;28(5):1441. Naughton, Lisa [corrected to Naughton-Treves, Lisa].


Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing.


carnivore; community involvement; community-based conservation; compensación; compensation; conocimiento local; conservación basada en la comunidad; conservación de carnívoros; conservation; conservation evaluation; evaluación de la conservación; incentives; incentivos; local knowledge; participación de la comunidad; tolerance; tolerancia

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