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Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2013 Nov;2(9):490-498.

An Introduction to Functional Genomics and Systems Biology.

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Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California , Riverside, California.



Over the past decade, the development of high-throughput technologies for DNA and protein analysis has revolutionized the ways in which cells can be studied. Within a relatively short time frame, research has changed from studying individual genes and proteins to analyzing entire genomes and proteomes.


In this article, we summarize the technologies and concepts that form the basis of this functional genomics approach.


Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to investigate many different aspects of the cell, including DNA mutations, histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin structure, transcription, and translation on a genome-wide level. In addition, mass spectrometry technologies have undergone significant development and currently enable us to globally profile protein levels, protein-protein interactions, post-translational protein modifications, and metabolites.


The integration of information from the various processes that occur within a cell provides a more complete picture of how genes give rise to biological functions, and will ultimately help us to understand the biology of organisms, in both health and disease.

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