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Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(5):1248-55. doi: 10.4161/hv.27882. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Immunogenicity of DNA- and recombinant protein-based Alzheimer disease epitope vaccines.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Immunology; Institute for Molecular Medicine; Huntington Beach, CA USA.
2
Xenetic Biosciences, PLC; London, UK.
3
Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders; University of California at Irvine; Irvine, CA USA.
4
Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders; University of California at Irvine; Irvine, CA USA; Department of Neurology; University of California at Irvine; Irvine, CA USA.
5
Department of Molecular Immunology; Institute for Molecular Medicine; Huntington Beach, CA USA; Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders; University of California at Irvine; Irvine, CA USA.

Abstract

Alzheimer disease (AD) process involves the accumulation of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain, nevertheless the attempts at targeting the main culprits, neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, have thus far proven unsuccessful for improving cognitive function. Important lessons about anti-Aβ immunotherapeutic strategies were learned from the first active vaccination clinical trials. AD progression could be safely prevented or delayed if the vaccine (1) induces high titers of antibodies specific to toxic forms of Aβ; (2) does not activate the harmful autoreactive T cells that may induce inflammation; (3) is initiated before or at least at the early stages of the accumulation of toxic forms of Aβ. Data from the recent passive vaccination trials with bapineuzumab and solanezumab also indicated that anti-Aβ immunotherapy might be effective in reduction of the AD pathology and even improvement of cognitive and/or functional performance in patients when administered early in the course of the disease. For the prevention of AD the active immunization strategy may be more desirable than passive immunotherapy protocol and it can offer the potential for sustainable clinical and commercial advantages. Here we discuss the active vaccine approaches, which are still in preclinical development and vaccines that are already in clinical trials.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer disease; DNA vaccine; adjuvants; electroporation; immune responses; liposome-based vaccination; protein vaccine

PMID:
24525778
PMCID:
PMC4896595
DOI:
10.4161/hv.27882
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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