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Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):225-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13025.

The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana.

Author information

1
1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2].
2
1] Anzick Family, 31 Old Clyde Park Road, Livingston, Montana 59047, USA [2].
3
Center for the Study of the First Americans, Departments of Anthropology and Geography, Texas A&M University, 4352 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA.
4
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
5
1] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 4134 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Earth Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK (I.B.); Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA (M.D.).
6
1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2] AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
7
Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet 208, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800, Denmark.
8
1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark [2] Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, 920 E. 58th Street, CLSC 4th floor, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
9
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
10
Education Department, Montana State University, Box 5103, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.
11
Program in Biomedical Informatics and Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
12
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
13
Anthropology Department, PhD Program, University of Montana, 4100 Mullan Road, no. 217, Missoula, Montana 59808, USA.
14
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, PO Box 644236, Eastlick Hall 395, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.
15
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Estonian Biocentre and University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010 Tartu, Estonia.
16
1] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK [2] Integrative Systems Biology Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
17
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK.
18
Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275, USA.
19
1] Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK [2] Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
20
Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
21
Department of Anthropology and Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 209F Davenport Hall, 607 Matthews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
22
1] School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK [2] Earth Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK (I.B.); Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA (M.D.).
23
BioArCh, Departments of Biology, Archaeology and Chemistry, University of York, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, UK.
24
MRC Centre for Outbreak, Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London W2 1PG, UK.
25
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
26
1] Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Littlefield Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Center for Evolutionary and Human Genomics, Stanford University, Littlefield Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
27
1] Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
28
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 4134 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Abstract

Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

PMID:
24522598
PMCID:
PMC4878442
DOI:
10.1038/nature13025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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