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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Mar;35(3):272-7. doi: 10.1086/675287. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Antimicrobial stewardship program to reduce antiretroviral medication errors in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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Department of Pharmacy, SoutheastHEALTH, Cape Girardeau, Missouri.



Evaluate antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeted to reduce highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)- or opportunistic infection (OI)-related medication errors and increase error resolution.


Retrospective before-after study.


Academic medical center.


Inpatients who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy before the intervention (January 1, 2011, to October 31, 2011) and after the intervention (July 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012). Patients treated with lamivudine or tenofovir monotherapy for hepatitis B were excluded.


Antimicrobial stewardship interventions included education, modification of electronic medication records, collaboration with the infectious diseases (ID) department, and prospective audit and review of HAART and OI regimens by an ID clinical pharmacist.


Data for 162 admissions from the preintervention period and 110 admissions from the postintervention period were included. The number of admissions with a medication error was significantly reduced after the intervention (81 [50%] of 162 admissions vs 37 (34%) of 110 admissions; P < .00)1. A total of 124 errors occurred in the preintervention group (mean no. of errors, 1.5 per admission), and 43 errors occurred in the postintervention group (mean no. of errors, 1.2 per admission). The most common error types were major drug interactions and dosing in the preintervention group and renal adjustment and OI-related errors in the postintervention group. A significantly higher error resolution rate was observed in the postintervention group (36% vs 74%; P < .001). After adjustment for potential confounders with logistic regression, admission in the postintervention group was independently associated with fewer medication errors (odds ratio, 0.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.77]; P = .005). Overall, presence of an ID consultant demonstrated a higher error resolution rate (32% without a consultation vs 68% with a consultation; P = .002).


Multifaceted, multidisciplinary stewardship efforts reduced the rate and increased the overall resolution of HAART-related medication errors.

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