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Br J Nutr. 2014 May 28;111(10):1881-90. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513004388. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Author information

1
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø 2100, Denmark.
2
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
4
Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Department of Food Science, BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
6
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
7
Molecular Epidemiology Group, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany.
8
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
9
INSERM, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Villejuif Cedex, France.
10
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany.
11
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
12
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
13
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute - ISPO, Florence, Italy.
14
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
15
Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit, "Civile - M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, ASP Ragusa, Italy.
16
MRC/HPA Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
17
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
18
Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
19
Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.
20
Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.
21
Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain.
22
Public Health Division of Guipuzkoa, Basque Regional Health Department, San Sebastian, Spain.
23
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
24
Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
25
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
26
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
27
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
28
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.
29
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Abstract

Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.

PMID:
24521535
DOI:
10.1017/S0007114513004388
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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