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ChemSusChem. 2014 Mar;7(3):914-8. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201301045. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

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Chemistry of Materials Department, Instituto Nacional del Carbón (INCAR-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain).


A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process.


bismuth; cyclic voltammetry; nanoparticles; redox flow battery; vanadium

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