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Pflugers Arch. 2014 Jun;466(6):1113-27. doi: 10.1007/s00424-014-1463-9. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Myofibroblasts and the extracellular matrix network in post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling.

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1
San Antonio Cardiovascular Proteomics Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Abstract

The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) fills the space between cells, supports tissue organization, and transduces mechanical, chemical, and biological signals to regulate homeostasis of the left ventricle (LV). Following myocardial infarction (MI), a multitude of ECM proteins are synthesized to replace myocyte loss and form a reparative scar. Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) are the primary source of ECM proteins, thus playing a key role in cardiac repair. A balanced turnover of ECM through regulation of synthesis by myofibroblasts and degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is critical for proper scar formation. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the roles of myofibroblasts, MMPs, and ECM proteins in MI-induced LV remodeling. In addition, we discuss future research directions that are needed to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ECM actions to optimize cardiac repair.

PMID:
24519465
PMCID:
PMC4033805
DOI:
10.1007/s00424-014-1463-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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