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J Pediatr. 2014 Jun;164(6):1296-302. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.048. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Evolution of thyroid function in preterm infants detected by screening for congenital hypothyroidism.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.
2
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
3
Regional Newborn Screening Laboratory of Lombardia Region, Children's Hospital V, Buzzi, Milan, Italy.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: weber.giovanna@hsr.it.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the evolution of congenital hypothyroidism in preterms and the clinical features of permanent forms.

STUDY DESIGN:

We retrospectively evaluated 24 preterm children detected by newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism: first screening with blood-thyroid stimulating hormone cutoff ≥10 mU/L and second screening with blood-thyroid stimulating hormone cutoff ≥5 mU/L. After the age of 2 years, patients with eutopic thyroid had diagnostic reevaluations, including thyroid function testing and thyroid ultrasonography after L-thyroxine therapy withdrawal.

RESULTS:

The first screening identified 21.7% of patients with thyroid stimulating hormone elevation, and the second screening identified 73.9% of patients. One patient (4.4%) was identified with a third screening test; 21 patients had an eutopic thyroid and 3 patients a thyroid dysgenesis. At reevaluation, 5 patients (23.8%) showed permanent hypothyroidism (serum-thyroid stimulating hormone [s-TSH] >10 mU/L) resulting in the need to reintroduce therapy, 5 patients (23.8%) showed persistent hyperthyrotropinemia (s-TSH 5-10 mU/L), and 11 infants (52.4%) transient hypothyroidism (s-TSH <5 mU/L). The main clinical features of patients affected by permanent hypothyroidism were 1 case of assisted reproduction, 2 twins, 2 small for gestational age, 1 maternal thyroiditis, and 2 patients with malformations/syndromes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Premature birth is a significant risk for congenital hypothyroidism with eutopic thyroid. In preterm infants, the evolution of congenital hypothyroidism remains difficult to predict. Our data emphasizes the high incidence of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants, and the importance of diagnostic reevaluation to determine the definitive diagnosis.

PMID:
24518164
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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