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Antivir Ther. 2014;19(4):435-41. doi: 10.3851/IMP2748. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

A decade of HIV-1 drug resistance in the United States: trends and characteristics in a large protease/reverse transcriptase and co-receptor tropism database from 2003 to 2012.

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Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA, USA.



Drug resistance testing and co-receptor tropism determination are key components of the management of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1-infected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine trends of HIV-1 resistance and viral evolution in the past decade by surveying a large commercial patient testing database.


Temporal trends of drug resistance, viral fitness and co-receptor usage among samples submitted for routine phenotypic and genotypic resistance testing to protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), as well as for tropism determination were investigated.


Within 62,397 resistant viruses reported from 2003 to 2012, we observed a decreasing trend in the prevalence of three-class resistance (from 25% to 9%) driven by decreased resistance to PIs (43% to 21%) and NRTIs (79% to 57%), while observing a slight increase in NNRTI resistance (68% to 75%). The prevalence of CXCR4-mediated entry among tropism testing samples (n=52,945) declined over time from 47% in 2007 to 40% in 2012. A higher proportion of CXCR4-tropic viruses was observed within samples with three-class resistance (50%) compared with the group with no resistance (36%).


Decreased prevalence of three-class resistance and increased prevalence of one-class resistance was observed within samples reported between 2003 and 2012. The fraction of CXCR4-tropic viruses has decreased over time; however, CXCR4 usage was more prevalent among multi-class-resistant samples, which may be due to the more advanced disease stage of treatment-experienced patients. These trends have important implications for clinical practice and future drug discovery and development.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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