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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 25;111(8):3086-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319268111. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand transforms CpG into a multitask nanoparticulate TLR9 agonist.

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Laboratory of Adjuvant Innovation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085, Japan.


CpG DNA, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), has been one of the most promising immunotherapeutic agents. Although there are several types of potent humanized CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), developing "all-in-one" CpG ODNs activating both B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells forming a stable nanoparticle without aggregation has not been successful. In this study, we generated a novel nanoparticulate K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG. In sharp contrast to K3 alone, K3-SPG stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce a large amount of both type I and type II IFN, targeting the same endosome where IFN-inducing D CpG ODN resides without losing its K-type activity. K3-SPG thus became a potent adjuvant for induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL induction, to coadministered protein antigens without conjugation. Such potent adjuvant activity of K3-SPG is attributed to its nature of being a nanoparticle rather than targeting Dectin-1 by SPG, accumulating and activating antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. K3-SPG acting as an influenza vaccine adjuvant was demonstrated in vivo in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Taken together, K3-SPG may be useful for immunotherapeutic applications that require type I and type II IFN as well as CTL induction.


MARCO; Siglec-1; innate immunity; two-photon microscopy; β-glucan

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