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Circulation. 2014 Mar 25;129(12):1286-94. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006518. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Trends in cause of death after percutaneous coronary intervention.

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Divisions of Cardiovascular Diseases (D.B.S., P.J.P., M.S., D.R.H., B.J.G., C.S.R., R.D.S., R.G.) and Biomedical Statistics and Informatics (R.J.L.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Division of Cardiovascular Diseases (I.D.M.), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.



The impact of changing demographics on causes of long-term death after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains incompletely defined.


We evaluated trends in cause-specific long-term mortality after index PCI performed at a single center from 1991 to 2008. Deaths were ascertained by scheduled prospective surveillance. Cause was determined via telephone interviews, medical records, autopsy reports, and death certificates. Competing-risks analysis of cause-specific mortality was performed using 3 time periods of PCI (1991-1996, 1997-2002, and 2003-2008). Final follow-up was December 31, 2012. A total of 19 077 patients survived index PCI hospitalization, of whom 6988 subsequently died (37%, 4.48 per 100 person-years). Cause was determined in 6857 (98.1%). Across 3 time periods, there was a 33% decline in cardiac deaths at 5 years after PCI (incidence: 9.8%, 7.4%, and 6.6%) but a 57% increase in noncardiac deaths (7.1%, 8.5%, and 11.2%). Only 36.8% of deaths in the recent era were cardiac. Similar trends were observed regardless of age, extent of coronary disease, or PCI indication. After adjustment for baseline variables, there was a 50% temporal decline in cardiac mortality but no change in noncardiac mortality. The decline in cardiac mortality was driven by fewer deaths from myocardial infarction/sudden death (P<0.001) but not heart failure (P=0.85). The increase in noncardiac mortality was primarily attributable to cancer and chronic diseases (P<0.001).


This study found a marked temporal switch from predominantly cardiac to predominantly noncardiac causes of death after PCI over 2 decades. The decline in cardiac mortality was independent of changes in baseline clinical characteristics. These findings have implications for patient care and clinical trial design.


cardiovascular diseases; coronary disease; death; percutaneous coronary intervention

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