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J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 28;289(13):8735-41. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R113.544635. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Role of metabolic H2O2 generation: redox signaling and oxidative stress.

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From the From the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, and.


Hydrogen peroxide, the nonradical 2-electron reduction product of oxygen, is a normal aerobic metabolite occurring at about 10 nm intracellular concentration. In liver, it is produced at 50 nmol/min/g of tissue, which is about 2% of total oxygen uptake at steady state. Metabolically generated H2O2 emerged from recent research as a central hub in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Upon generation by major sources, the NADPH oxidases or Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, H2O2 is under sophisticated fine control of peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases with their backup systems as well as by catalase. Of note, H2O2 is a second messenger in insulin signaling and in several growth factor-induced signaling cascades. H2O2 transport across membranes is facilitated by aquaporins, denoted as peroxiporins. Specialized protein cysteines operate as redox switches using H2O2 as thiol oxidant, making this reactive oxygen species essential for poising the set point of the redox proteome. Major processes including proliferation, differentiation, tissue repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, and aging use this low molecular weight oxygen metabolite as signaling compound.


Aquaporin; Catalase; Glutathione Peroxidase; Hydrogen Peroxide; Insulin; Mitochondria; NADPH Oxidase; Peroxiredoxin; Redox; Second Messenger

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