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Resuscitation. 2014 Mar;85(3):336-42. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.10.014. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

The impact of peri-shock pause on survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest during the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED trial.

Author information

University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.
Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.
University of California/San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.
Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States.
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.



Previous research has demonstrated significant relationships between peri-shock pause and survival to discharge from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest (OHCA).


To determine the impact of peri-shock pause on survival from OHCA during the ROC PRIMED randomized controlled trial.


We included patients in the ROC PRIMED trial who suffered OHCA between June 2007 and November 2009, presented with a shockable rhythm and had CPR process data for at least one shock. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between peri-shock pause duration and survival to hospital discharge.


Among 2006 patients studied, the median (IQR) shock pause duration was: pre-shock pause 15s (8, 22); post-shock pause 6s (4, 9); and peri-shock pause 22.0 s (14, 31). After adjusting for Utstein predictors of survival as well as CPR quality measures, the odds of survival to hospital discharge were significantly higher for patients with pre-shock pause <10s (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.11) and peri-shock pause <20s (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.85) when compared to patients with pre-shock pause ≥ 20s and peri-shock pause ≥ 40s. Post-shock pause was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge. Results for neurologically intact survival (Modified Rankin Score ≤ 3) were similar to our primary outcome.


In patients with cardiac arrest presenting in a shockable rhythm during the ROC PRIMED trial, shorter pre- and peri-shock pauses were significantly associated with higher odds of survival. Future cardiopulmonary education and technology should focus on minimizing all peri-shock pauses.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Heart arrest; Resuscitation; Survival

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