Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Behav Brain Res. 2014 May 1;264:181-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.01.026. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Exploratory behavior and withdrawal signs in crayfish: chronic central morphine injections and termination effects.

Author information

Department of Biology, North Greenville University, Tigerville, SC 29688, United States.
Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.
Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, United States.
University of South Carolina School of Medicine-Greenville, HSEB, 607 Grove Road, Greenville, SC 29605, United States. Electronic address:


Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations.


Crayfish; Exploration; Morphine; Withdrawal

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center