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Curr Hypertens Rep. 2014 Mar;16(3):420. doi: 10.1007/s11906-014-0420-5.

ACE2: angiotensin II/angiotensin-(1-7) balance in cardiac and renal injury.

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Hypertension & Vascular Research Center, Division of Surgical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA,


Our current recognition of the renin-angiotensin system is more convoluted than originally thought due to the discovery of multiple novel enzymes, peptides, and receptors inherent in this interactive biochemical cascade. Over the last decade, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key player in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease due to its pivotal role in metabolizing vasoconstrictive/hypertrophic/proliferative angiotensin II into favorable angiotensin-(1-7). This review addresses the considerable advancement in research on the role of tissue ACE2 in the development and progression of hypertension and cardiac and renal injury. We summarize the results from recent clinical and experimental studies suggesting that serum or urine soluble ACE2 may serve as a novel biomarker or independent risk factor relevant for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiorenal disease. We also review recent proceedings on novel therapeutic approaches to enhance ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) axis.

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