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Nat Commun. 2014;5:3256. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4256.

Integrated circuit-based electrochemical sensor for spatially resolved detection of redox-active metabolites in biofilms.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
3
School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1.
5
Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
6
1] Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA [2] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

Abstract

Despite advances in monitoring spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes and proteins with fluorescent probes, direct detection of metabolites and small molecules remains challenging. A technique for spatially resolved detection of small molecules would benefit the study of redox-active metabolites that are produced by microbial biofilms and can affect their development. Here we present an integrated circuit-based electrochemical sensing platform featuring an array of working electrodes and parallel potentiostat channels. 'Images' over a 3.25 × 0.9 mm(2) area can be captured with a diffusion-limited spatial resolution of 750 μm. We demonstrate that square wave voltammetry can be used to detect, identify and quantify (for concentrations as low as 2.6 μM) four distinct redox-active metabolites called phenazines. We characterize phenazine production in both wild-type and mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony biofilms, and find correlations with fluorescent reporter imaging of phenazine biosynthetic gene expression.

PMID:
24510163
PMCID:
PMC3969851
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms4256
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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