Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Apr;19(2):253-61. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.01.017. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Ethyl linoleate from garlic attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

Author information

1
Korea BIO-IT Foundry Center, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706, Republic of Korea.
3
National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 440-706, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706, Republic of Korea; Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ywchoi@pusan.ac.kr.

Abstract

In the present study, an essential fatty acid, ethyl linoleate (ELA), was isolated from the cloves of Allium sativum, and its structure was elucidated by NMR and GC-MS analyses. In vitro systems were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ELA. Our results indicate that ELA down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and thereby reduces nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescent microscopy and western blot analyses revealed that these effects were mediated by impaired translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases. Furthermore, ELA exerted its anti-inflammatory activity by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as determined by HO-1 small interfering (Si) RNA system. Si RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 abrogated the inhibitory effects of ELA on the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages. These findings indicate the potential therapeutic use of ELA as an anti-inflammatory agent.

KEYWORDS:

Allium sativum; Anti-inflammation; Cyclooxygenase-2; Ethyl linoleate; Heme oxygenase-1; Inducible nitric oxide synthase

PMID:
24508058
DOI:
10.1016/j.intimp.2014.01.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center