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Clin Lab Med. 2014 Mar;34(1):15-30, xi. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2013.11.006. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

Clinical features of heart failure and acute coronary syndromes.

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Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Yawkey 5B, Boston, MA 02109, USA. Electronic address:


This article provides a brief overview of the clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic features, and basic management principles in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). CHF is a clinical syndrome that typically results in symptoms of congestion and hypoperfusion. A thorough physical examination complemented by cardiac biomarkers and imaging are essential in making the diagnosis. Medical and device therapies for CHF target improvement in survival as well as control of symptoms. The management of ACS involves making a prompt diagnosis through the use of a focused history and physical examination, electrocardiogram assessment, and cardiac biomarker evaluation. Timely revascularization along with optimal medical management have helped to improve patient outcomes and mortality.


Acute coronary syndrome; Biomarkers; Cardiac markers; Clinical; Congestive heart failure; Laboratory medicine; Review

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