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Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 May;97(5):1652-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.11.022. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

Pediatric cardiothoracic surgery in patients with unilateral pulmonary agenesis or aplasia.

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Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. Electronic address:
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.



Unilateral pulmonary agenesis or aplasia (UPA), a rare developmental defect of the lung, is sometimes associated with congenital heart and tracheal diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess our experience of pediatric cardiothoracic surgery in UPA patients.


Cardiothoracic surgery for congenital heart defect or tracheal stenosis performed between 1981 and 2010 in 8 UPA patients (agenesis in 5 and aplasia in 3) was reviewed retrospectively. Associated cardiac anomalies included ventricular septal defect, double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary atresia, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, and interrupted aortic arch complex.


For 7 patients with right UPA and 1 patient with left UPA, 12 cardiothoracic operations were performed, including 8 cardiac procedures in 4 patients and 4 tracheal procedures in 4 patients. Cardiac palliative repairs included Blalock-Park anastomosis, systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, and pulmonary artery banding. Cardiac definitive repairs included ventricular septal defect closure, subaortic membrane resection, modified Konno procedure, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair, and Rastelli-type operation. Tracheal repairs were costal cartilage tracheoplasty and slide tracheoplasty. The median age at surgery was 8 months and median body weight was 6.2 kg; the median operative time was 6.5 hours. There were 3 hospital deaths and 1 late death, with the 1-year mortality rate of 25%. Cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury has occurred in 3 cases, 2 of which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Younger age of less than 1 month and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time of more than 200 minutes were related to operative risk factors for hospital mortality and morbidity.


Most of the pediatric cardiothoracic operations in UPA patients were successfully performed through an optimal surgical approach and procedure, but they still presented surgical risks of high mortality and morbidity. Perioperative management of UPA patients should be provided with a precise understanding of anatomic configuration and a careful consideration of underlying risk factors.

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