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Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Feb 6;14(2):203-16. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.11.022.

The two active X chromosomes in female ESCs block exit from the pluripotent state by modulating the ESC signaling network.

Author information

1
Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, Paris 75248, France. Electronic address: edda.schulz@curie.fr.
2
Institute of Pathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Integrative Research Institute for the Life Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt Universität, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
3
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; JST, ERATO, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
4
Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, Paris 75248, France.
5
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; JST, ERATO, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan; Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
6
Mammalian Developmental Epigenetics Group, Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3215, INSERM U934, Paris 75248, France. Electronic address: edith.heard@curie.fr.

Abstract

During early development of female mouse embryos, both X chromosomes are transiently active. X gene dosage is then equalized between the sexes through the process of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Whether the double dose of X-linked genes in females compared with males leads to sex-specific developmental differences has remained unclear. Using embryonic stem cells with distinct sex chromosome compositions as a model system, we show that two X chromosomes stabilize the naive pluripotent state by inhibiting MAPK and Gsk3 signaling and stimulating the Akt pathway. Since MAPK signaling is required to exit the pluripotent state, differentiation is paused in female cells as long as both X chromosomes are active. By preventing XCI or triggering it precociously, we demonstrate that this differentiation block is released once XX cells have undergone X inactivation. We propose that double X dosage interferes with differentiation, thus ensuring a tight coupling between X chromosome dosage compensation and development.

PMID:
24506884
DOI:
10.1016/j.stem.2013.11.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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