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J Prof Nurs. 2014 Jan-Feb;30(1):89-99. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2013.04.004.

Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents' job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout.

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Student, Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Assistant Vice President, Business Analytics and Research, Versant, Redwood City, CA.
Student, Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ.
Manager, Versant RN Residency in Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Associate Professor, Anesthesiology & Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:


Stress can have detrimental effects on nurse residents' levels of job satisfaction, compassion, fatigue, and burnout. This can lead to high turnover rates and poor quality of care among novice nurses. Therefore, it is critical to identify protective factors to prevent the onset of negative nurse outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout, and job dissatisfaction) and to promote positive nurse outcomes (job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction). This study aimed to determine whether factors such as group cohesion and organizational commitment would be protective and moderate the association between stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms and other negative nurse outcomes, thus facilitating positive outcomes. Findings showed that group cohesion was effective in moderating the negative effects of current stress exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms on negative nurse outcomes, specifically on increased compassion fatigue and burnout, and reduced compassion satisfaction. In addition, organizational commitment was determined to promote positive nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and compassion satisfaction. The study findings are promising, as retention of quality nurses is a significant problem for hospitals. Nurse managers and hospital administrators should be aware of the benefits of group cohesion and organizational commitment and strive to make the promotion of these factors a priority.


Burnout; Fatigue; Nurses; Posttraumatic stress; Satisfaction; Stress

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