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Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 Feb;21(2):118-25. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2763. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Transcriptional control of a whole chromosome: emerging models for dosage compensation.

Author information

1
Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2
1] Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
3
1] Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

Males and females of many animal species differ in their sex-chromosome karyotype, and this creates imbalances between X-chromosome and autosomal gene products that require compensation. Although distinct molecular mechanisms have evolved in three highly studied systems, they all achieve coordinate regulation of an entire chromosome by differential RNA-polymerase occupancy at X-linked genes. High-throughput genome-wide methods have been pivotal in driving the latest progress in the field. Here we review the emerging models for dosage compensation in mammals, flies and nematodes, with a focus on mechanisms affecting RNA polymerase II activity on the X chromosome.

PMID:
24500429
PMCID:
PMC4342042
DOI:
10.1038/nsmb.2763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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