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J Res Med Sci. 2013 Oct;18(10):833-9.

Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutics, Isfahan Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutics, Isfahan Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Department of Pharmacognosy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
5
Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
6
Department of Pharmacology, Isfahan Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy).

RESULTS:

The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P < 0.001). In a comparison of different deodorant densities, the interaction effect was not significant between deodorant 200 and 400 μg/mL, but was significant between 200 and 600 and between 400 and 600 μg/mL sage extract sticks (P < 0.001). Before running the sensory evaluation of the deodorant sticks on the subjects, a rabbit skin patch test was used to demonstrate that the formulation had no irritants.

CONCLUSION:

A single treatment with a stick deodorant containing dichloromethane sage extract of 200, 400, or 600 μg/mL concentrations was effective in reducing the axillary malodor level compared with the control, in healthy subjects.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial activity; axillary deodorant; sage extract; stick

PMID:
24497852
PMCID:
PMC3897065
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