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J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2014 Apr;25(4):604-13. doi: 10.1007/s13361-013-0821-8. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Exploring salt bridge structures of gas-phase protein ions using multiple stages of electron transfer and collision induced dissociation.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, LGRT 124, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

Abstract

The gas-phase structures of protein ions have been studied by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) after electrospraying these proteins from native-like solutions into a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Because ETD can break covalent bonds while minimally disrupting noncovalent interactions, we have investigated the ability of this dissociation technique together with CID to probe the sites of electrostatic interactions in gas-phase protein ions. By comparing spectra from ETD with spectra from ETD followed by CID, we find that several proteins, including ubiquitin, CRABP I, azurin, and β-2-microglobulin, appear to maintain many of the salt bridge contacts known to exist in solution. To support this conclusion, we also performed calculations to consider all possible salt bridge patterns for each protein, and we find that the native salt bridge pattern explains the experimental ETD data better than nearly all other possible salt bridge patterns. Overall, our data suggest that ETD and ETD/CID of native protein ions can provide some insight into approximate location of salt bridges in the gas phase.

PMID:
24496600
PMCID:
PMC3963490
DOI:
10.1007/s13361-013-0821-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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