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J Surg Res. 2014 May 1;188(1):243-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.12.007. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Pretreatment with hydrogen-rich saline reduces the damage caused by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in rats.

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Department of Nephrology, No.88 Hospital of PLA, Taian, Shandong Province, China.
Institution of Atherosclerosis, Taishan Medical University, Taian, Shandong Province, China.
Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
Department of Nephrology, No.88 Hospital of PLA, Taian, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:



Rhabdomyolysis is a leading cause of acute kidney injury. The pathophysiological process involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. This study explored the protective effect of pretreatment with HRS on the development of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis acute kidney injury.


Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group 1 served as the control, group 2 was given 50% glycerol (10 mL/kg, intramuscular), group 3 was given glycerol after 7 d pretreatment with high dose HRS (10 mL/kg/d, intraperitoneal), and group 4 was given glycerol after 7 d pretreatment with low dose HRS (5 mL/kg/d, intraperitoneal). Renal health was monitored by serum creatinine (Cr), urea, and histologic analysis; rhabdomyolysis was monitored by creatine kinase (CK) levels; and oxidative stress was monitored by kidney tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. Inflammation was monitored by interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) evaluation.


Glycerol administration resulted in an increase in the mean histologic damage score, serum Cr, urea and CK, kidney tissue ROS, malondialdehyde, 8-OH-dG, GSH-PX, IL-6, and TNF-α, and a decrease in kidney tissue superoxide dismutase activity. All these factors were significantly improved by both doses of HRS, but the mean histologic damage score, urea, Cr, CK, ROS, 8-OH-dG, GSH-PX, IL-6, and TNF-α for the high dose HRS treatment group were even lower.


Pretreatment by HRS ameliorated renal dysfunction in glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis by inhibiting oxidative stress and the inflammatory response.


Acute kidney injury; Hydrogen-rich saline; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Rhabdomyolysis

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