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Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Dec;9(12):2049-58. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu019. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

Structural and functional bases of inhibited temperament.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medi
4
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA, Department of Clinical Psychology, Illinois School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main St, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235, USA, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 116 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical School, 2200 Children's Way, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Jennifer.Blackford@Vanderbilt.edu.

Abstract

Children born with an inhibited temperament are at heightened risk for developing anxiety, depression and substance use. Inhibited temperament is believed to have a biological basis; however, little is known about the structural brain basis of this vulnerability trait. Structural MRI scans were obtained from 84 (44 inhibited, 40 uninhibited) young adults. Given previous findings of amygdala hyperactivity in inhibited individuals, groups were compared on three measures of amygdala structure. To identify novel substrates of inhibited temperament, a whole brain analysis was performed. Functional activation and connectivity were examined across both groups. Inhibited adults had larger amygdala and caudate volume and larger volume predicted greater activation to neutral faces. In addition, larger amygdala volume predicted greater connectivity with subcortical and higher order visual structures. Larger caudate volume predicted greater connectivity with the basal ganglia, and less connectivity with primary visual and auditory cortex. We propose that larger volume in these salience detection regions may result in increased activation and enhanced connectivity in response to social stimuli. Given the strong link between inhibited temperament and risk for psychiatric illness, novel therapeutics that target these brain regions and related neural circuits have the potential to reduce rates of illness in vulnerable individuals.

KEYWORDS:

anxiety; behavioral inhibition; salience; shy

PMID:
24493850
PMCID:
PMC4249486
DOI:
10.1093/scan/nsu019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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