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Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Apr;42(7):4435-49. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku088. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

PARP1-TDP1 coupling for the repair of topoisomerase I-induced DNA damage.

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Developmental Therapeutics Branch and Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4255, USA, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India, Biotechnology and Cell Signaling, UMR7242 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Laboratory of Excellence Medalis, ESBS, Blvd Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch, France, CEA-DSV-iMETI-SEPIA, BP6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex, France and Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032, India.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) attach poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains to various proteins including themselves and chromatin. Topoisomerase I (Top1) regulates DNA supercoiling and is the target of camptothecin and indenoisoquinoline anticancer drugs, as it forms Top1 cleavage complexes (Top1cc) that are trapped by the drugs. Endogenous and carcinogenic DNA lesions can also trap Top1cc. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a key repair enzyme for trapped Top1cc, hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond between the DNA 3'-end and the Top1 tyrosyl moiety. Alternative repair pathways for Top1cc involve endonuclease cleavage. However, it is unknown what determines the choice between TDP1 and the endonuclease repair pathways. Here we show that PARP1 plays a critical role in this process. By generating TDP1 and PARP1 double-knockout lymphoma chicken DT40 cells, we demonstrate that TDP1 and PARP1 are epistatic for the repair of Top1cc. The N-terminal domain of TDP1 directly binds the C-terminal domain of PARP1, and TDP1 is PARylated by PARP1. PARylation stabilizes TDP1 together with SUMOylation of TDP1. TDP1 PARylation enhances its recruitment to DNA damage sites without interfering with TDP1 catalytic activity. TDP1-PARP1 complexes, in turn recruit X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). This work identifies PARP1 as a key component driving the repair of trapped Top1cc by TDP1.

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