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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Apr;108(4):228-36. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/tru013. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Prevalence and risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Nepal.

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Department of Human Ecology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.



The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and intensity and examine the risk factors of soil transmitted helminth (STH; i.e., roundworm [Ascaris lumbricoides], hookworms [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and whipworm [Trichuris trichiura]) infections in Nepal.


Five hundred and ninety-four adults (256 men and 338 women) were selected via convenience sampling from five communities in Nepal. The Kato-Katz method was used to assess the prevalence and intensity of STH infection in this population.


Prevalence of STH infection ranged from 3.3% in Birendranagar in Chitwan, 3.5% in Kuleshor in Kathmandu, 11.7% in Kanyam in Ilam, 17.0% in Dhikurpokhari in Kaski and 51.4% in Khokana in Lalitpur District [corrected]. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that not using soap for hand-washing was significantly associated with the prevalence and infection intensity of roundworm, hookworms and whipworm. Similarly, not wearing sandals or shoes outside was significantly associated with the prevalence and infection intensity of roundworm and hookworms, but not with infection intensity of whipworm. Literacy, being underweight or overweight, anemia and occupation were not associated with prevalence and intensity of roundworm and hookworms infection, but there was an association between occupation and the prevalence of whipworm infection.


STH infection was associated with individual hygiene behavior, but not with nutritional status or socio-demographic characteristics. Health policy focusing on changing individual hygiene behaviors might be useful in addressing STH infection in Nepal.


Hygiene; Kato-Katz technique; Nepal; Risk factors; Soil-transmitted helminth infection

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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