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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2014 Apr;25(2):91-106. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2013.12.003. Epub 2014 Jan 4.

Cell-specific and context-dependent effects of GITR in cancer, autoimmunity, and infection.

Author information

1
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.
2
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address: tania.watts@utoronto.ca.

Abstract

A breadth of studies have demonstrated the importance of GITR-GITRL in diverse immune processes. However, only a limited number of studies to date have attributed the effects of GITR/GITRL to specific cell types. Moreover, the context-dependent role of GITR/GITRL in different models makes the consequences of GITR ligation difficult to generalize. There is a significant interest in the therapeutic application of GITR agonists and antagonists in human disease. Thus, the field must come to a consensus regarding the cell type-specific and physiological effects of GITR in different disease states. Here we attempt to summarize the extensive literature on GITR, to synthesize a more cohesive picture of the role of GITR/GITRL in immunity, and to identify areas that require clarification.

KEYWORDS:

Co-stimulation; GITR; GITRL; T cell; TNFR

PMID:
24484736
DOI:
10.1016/j.cytogfr.2013.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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